You have likely been hearing a lot lately about "Cap and Trade." You may even have heard about some customers in PG&E territory getting a "climate credit" on their electric bills. This is all related to a California state initiative to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through auctions of "allowances." The following summary will help you understand what cap and trade is all about and how it impacts the community-owned utilities in Palo Alto.
What is "Cap and Trade" all about?
The State of California's Cap and Trade program is a central element of the California Global Warming Solutions Act or AB 32, and covers major sources of GHG emissions in the State such as refineries, power plants, industrial facilities and transportation fuels. Under cap and trade, the State sets an overall limit or "cap" (which will decline over time) on GHG emissions. Entities subject to the cap will be able to trade permits (allowances) to emit GHGs. Hence, the system is called "cap and trade." Each allowance is a permit to emit a metric ton of carbon dioxide (or an equivalent amount of other GHGs). The net result of the declining cap is emissions for the state as a whole will be reduced over time.
The City of Palo Alto Utilities (CPAU) is affected in two ways:
1. As of 2013, the city's electric utility, like all California electric utilities, began facing higher energy costs when purchasing "brown power," generated using fossil fuels. To supplement its hydro and renewable energy supplies, CPAU does purchase some brown power along with Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) to ensure that all electric supplies are carbon neutral. In recognition of higher costs incurred by electric utilities, the State allocates free allowances to be used to relieve the impact on electric ratepayers. CPAU is required to sell those allowances and use the proceeds for the benefit of CPAU's electric customers.
2. As of 2015, the gas utility is required to purchase allowances for the carbon emissions associated with the gas it delivers to customers. As with the electric utility, the gas utility will receive free allowances until at least 2020. Unlike the electric utility, the gas utility must both sell some of the allowances and purchase enough allowances to cover the GHGs resulting from natural gas used by CPAU's gas customers. Proceeds from the sale of allowances must be used to the benefit of CPAU's gas ratepayers and must be consistent with the goal of reducing GHGs.
What will CPAU do with the money made by selling its allowances?
For CPAU's electric customers, the City Council approved the following uses:
Purchases in renewable resources
Keeping our electric resource mix 100% carbon neutral
programs and rebates to improve energy efficiency
rebates to electric ratepayers
For CPAU's gas customers, the City Council approved the following uses:
programs and rebated to improve energy efficiency
purchases of, or investment in, biogas
investment in carbon reduction activities including projects to reduce emissions caused by leaks